A dataset provided by the European Space Agency

Name OT2_joliveir_2
Title Cooling and chemistry in embedded massive protostars in the Magellanic Clouds
URL

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DOI https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-sos67av
Author oliveira, j.
Description Stars form from contracting molecular cores, but this process relies heavily on the ability
of the core to cool. This depends on chemical composition and could therefore lead to
different outcomes at low metallicity. However, most of what we know about star
formation is derived from studies of Galactic YSOs. Herschel provides the unmissable
opportunity to extend such analysis to the low-metallicity environments of the Large
and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), by observing the main cooling lines:
fine-structure lines of oxygen and carbon, and rotational transitions of abundant molecules.

Our Spitzer Legacy Programs (SAGE; SAGE-SMC) and Herschel Key Program (HERITAGE)
identified 1000s of young stellar objects (YSOs), in both Clouds. Follow-up spectroscopy
(Spitzer-IRS and ESO/VLT) provided unique insight into the abundances of ices in
Magellanic YSOs, revealing differences in the composition of circumstellar material at
lower metallicity. Since the gas and ice phase chemistry is inextricably linked, this opens
the possibility of significant variations to gas-phase abundances. Such differences
could imply changes to cooling and heating rates, and consequently different star
formation timescales and efficiencies.

To investigate the role of metallicity we will observe a sample of embedded massive
Magellanic YSOs. We will use PACS and SPIRE FTS spectrographs to measure the
strengths of key gas-phase cooling species ([OI], [OIII], [CII], H2O, CO, OH), in
order to estimate temperature, density, ionization state and abundances. These
observations will enable us to characterise the gas and constrain the cooling
budget of the YSO envelopes. Together with our ice column density measurements,
the Herschel observations are crucial to investigate how grain-surface reactions
change the chemical make-up of the gas.

By comparing th...e SMC and LMC, and Galactic YSO samples we will assess how the
chemistry, and consequently the ability of the YSO envelopes to cool, differ at
sub-solar metallicity.
Publication Herschel spectroscopy of massive young stellar objects in the Magellanic Clouds . Oliveira J. M. et al. . Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society . null . null . 2019MNRAS.490.3909O ,
Disentangling emission from star-forming regions in the Magellanic Clouds: Linking [O III]λ88 µm and 24 µm . Lambert-Huyghe A. et al. . Astronomy and Astrophysics . null . null . 2022A&A...666A.112L ,
Instrument SPIRE_SpireSpectrometer_, PACS_PacsLineSpec_point
Temporal Coverage 2012-04-08T00:21:55Z/2012-12-16T21:13:50Z
Version SPG v14.2.0
Mission Description Herschel was launched on 14 May 2009! It is the fourth 'cornerstone' mission in the ESA science programme. With a 3.5 m Cassegrain telescope it is the largest space telescope ever launched. It is performing photometry and spectroscopy in approximately the 55-671 µm range, bridging the gap between earlier infrared space missions and groundbased facilities.
Creator Contact https://support.cosmos.esa.int/h®erschel/
Date Published 2013-06-16T20:31:40Z
Publisher And Registrant European Space Agency
Credit Guidelines European Space Agency, oliveira, j., 2013, OT2_joliveir_2, SPG v14.2.0, European Space Agency, https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-sos67av